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如何在Ubuntu 16.04 LTS上安装和使用Lnav Log Viewer

如何在Ubuntu 16.04 LTS上安装和使用Lnav Log Viewer

LNAV也被称为“横向导航”,它是一款免费且开源的增强型日志文件查看器,可用于查找正在查看的文件信息以及时间戳和日志级别。 LNAV是为小型解决方案构建的命令行日志文件查看器。 它很简单,易于使用和定制。 LNAV是一款完全免费的应用程序,可在Linux和Mac操作系统上运行。 它使用户能够在单个窗口中显示来自多个文件的日志,并且还可以看到这些日志的实时更新。

LNAV具有很多功能,其中一些列在下面:

  • 允许您通过SQL查询日志。
  • 能够检测和读取多种日志格式的日志。
  • 它具有着色亮起功能,可帮助用户轻松识别信息,警告和错误之间的差异。
  • 自动从压缩文件中提取数据,如gzip和bzip2。
  • 能够在您输入时搜索日志。 新的日志行会在添加时自动加载和搜索。

在本教程中,我们将解释如何在Ubuntu 16.04服务器上安装和使用lnav。

要求

  • 运行Ubuntu 16.04的服务器。
  • 具有sudo权限的非root用户。

安装Lnav

默认情况下,lnav在Ubuntu 16.04默认存储库中可用。 所以你可以通过运行以下命令来安装它:

sudo apt-get install lnav -y

安装lnav后,您可以通过运行以下命令来查看lnav的版本:

lnav -V

您应该看到以下输出:

lnav 0.6.2

与Lnav合作

您可以使用以下命令查看lnav的所有选项:

lnav -h

您应该看到以下输出:

usage: lnav [-hVsar] [logfile1 logfile2 ...]A curses-based log file viewer that indexes log messages by typeand time to make it easier to navigate through files quickly.Key bindings:  ?     View/leave the online help text.  q     Quit the program.Options:  -h         Print this message, then exit.  -C         Check configuration and then exit.  -d file    Write debug messages to the given file.  -V         Print version information.  -s         Load the most recent syslog messages file.  -a         Load all of the most recent log file types.  -r         Load older rotated log files as well.  -t         Prepend timestamps to the lines of data being read in             on the standard input.  -w file    Write the contents of the standard input to this file.Optional arguments:  logfile1          The log files or directories to view.  If a                    directory is given, all of the files in the                    directory will be loaded.Examples:  To load and follow the syslog file:    $ lnav -s  To load all of the files in /var/log:    $ lnav /var/log  To watch the output of make with timestamps prepended:    $ make 2>&1 | lnav -tVersion: lnav 0.6.2

现在,让我们开始运行lnav命令,根据所有日志文件中最新的时间戳来查看实时信息。 该命令将从/ var / log目录内的所有文件中收集日志。

sudo lnav

您应该看到以下输出:

Jan 28 16:56:01 icingaclient wpa_supplicant[926]: wlan0: CTRL-EVENT-SCAN-STARTEDJan 28 16:59:46 icingaclient dhclient: DHCPREQUEST of 192.168.137.101 on wlan0 to 192.168.137.1 port 67 (xid=0xcd468e)Jan 28 16:59:46 icingaclient dhclient: DHCPACK of 192.168.137.101 from 192.168.137.1Jan 28 16:59:46 icingaclient dhclient: bound to 192.168.137.101 -- renewal in 273 seconds.Jan 28 16:59:46 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:  (wlan0): DHCPv4 state changed reboot -> renewJan 28 16:59:46 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    address 192.168.137.101Jan 28 16:59:46 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    prefix 24 (255.255.255.0)Jan 28 16:59:46 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    gateway 192.168.137.1Jan 28 16:59:46 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    nameserver '192.168.137.1'Jan 28 16:59:46 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    domain name 'mshome.net'Jan 28 16:59:46 icingaclient dbus[779]: [system] Activating service name='org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher' (using servicehelper)Jan 28 16:59:46 icingaclient dbus[779]: [system] Successfully activated service 'org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher'Jan 28 17:04:19 icingaclient dhclient: DHCPREQUEST of 192.168.137.101 on wlan0 to 192.168.137.1 port 67 (xid=0xcd468e)Jan 28 17:04:19 icingaclient dhclient: DHCPACK of 192.168.137.101 from 192.168.137.1Jan 28 17:04:20 icingaclient dhclient: bound to 192.168.137.101 -- renewal in 226 seconds.Jan 28 17:04:20 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:  (wlan0): DHCPv4 state changed renew -> renewJan 28 17:04:20 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    address 192.168.137.101Jan 28 17:04:20 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    prefix 24 (255.255.255.0)Jan 28 17:04:20 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    gateway 192.168.137.1Jan 28 17:04:20 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    nameserver '192.168.137.1'Jan 28 17:04:20 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    domain name 'mshome.net'Jan 28 17:04:20 icingaclient dbus[779]: [system] Activating service name='org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher' (using servicehelper)Jan 28 17:04:20 icingaclient dbus[779]: [system] Successfully activated service 'org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher'Jan 28 17:05:01 icingaclient CRON[3964]: (root) CMD (command -v debian-sa1 > /dev/null && debian-sa1 1 1)Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient dhclient: DHCPREQUEST of 192.168.137.101 on wlan0 to 192.168.137.1 port 67 (xid=0xcd468e)Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient dhclient: DHCPACK of 192.168.137.101 from 192.168.137.1Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient dhclient: bound to 192.168.137.101 -- renewal in 297 seconds.Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:  (wlan0): DHCPv4 state changed renew -> renewJan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    address 192.168.137.101Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    prefix 24 (255.255.255.0)Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    gateway 192.168.137.1Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    nameserver '192.168.137.1'Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    domain name 'mshome.net'Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient dbus[779]: [system] Activating service name='org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher' (using servicehelper)Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient dbus[779]: [system] Successfully activated service 'org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher'

如果要查看/ var / log / apache2目录中的日志,请运行以下命令:

sudo lnav /var/log/apache2

有时,最新的信息在最近的文件中不可用。 因此,您可以使用-r选项显示旧日志文件中的信息:

sudo lnav -r

您应该看到以下输出:

Jan 28 17:04:20 icingaclient dhclient: bound to 192.168.137.101 -- renewal in 226 seconds.Jan 28 17:04:20 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:  (wlan0): DHCPv4 state changed renew -> renewJan 28 17:04:20 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    address 192.168.137.101Jan 28 17:04:20 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    prefix 24 (255.255.255.0)Jan 28 17:04:20 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    gateway 192.168.137.1Jan 28 17:04:20 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    nameserver '192.168.137.1'Jan 28 17:04:20 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    domain name 'mshome.net'Jan 28 17:04:20 icingaclient dbus[779]: [system] Activating service name='org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher' (using servicehelper)Jan 28 17:04:20 icingaclient dbus[779]: [system] Successfully activated service 'org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher'Jan 28 17:05:01 icingaclient CRON[3964]: (root) CMD (command -v debian-sa1 > /dev/null && debian-sa1 1 1)Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient dhclient: DHCPREQUEST of 192.168.137.101 on wlan0 to 192.168.137.1 port 67 (xid=0xcd468e)Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient dhclient: DHCPACK of 192.168.137.101 from 192.168.137.1Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient dhclient: bound to 192.168.137.101 -- renewal in 297 seconds.Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:  (wlan0): DHCPv4 state changed renew -> renewJan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    address 192.168.137.101Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    prefix 24 (255.255.255.0)Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    gateway 192.168.137.1Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    nameserver '192.168.137.1'Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    domain name 'mshome.net'Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient dbus[779]: [system] Activating service name='org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher' (using servicehelper)Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient dbus[779]: [system] Successfully activated service 'org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher'Jan 28 17:12:47 icingaclient dnsmasq[1174]: nameserver 192.168.137.1 refused to do a recursive queryJan 28 17:13:03 icingaclient dhclient: DHCPREQUEST of 192.168.137.101 on wlan0 to 192.168.137.1 port 67 (xid=0xcd468e)Jan 28 17:13:03 icingaclient dhclient: DHCPACK of 192.168.137.101 from 192.168.137.1Jan 28 17:13:03 icingaclient dhclient: bound to 192.168.137.101 -- renewal in 291 seconds.

您还可以使用-t选项查看带有时间戳选项的日志文件:

sudo lnav -t

您应该看到以下输出:

Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient dhclient: DHCPACK of 192.168.137.101 from 192.168.137.1Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient dhclient: bound to 192.168.137.101 -- renewal in 297 seconds.Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:  (wlan0): DHCPv4 state changed renew -> renewJan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    address 192.168.137.101Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    prefix 24 (255.255.255.0)Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    gateway 192.168.137.1Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    nameserver '192.168.137.1'Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    domain name 'mshome.net'Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient dbus[779]: [system] Activating service name='org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher' (using servicehelper)Jan 28 17:08:06 icingaclient dbus[779]: [system] Successfully activated service 'org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher'Jan 28 17:12:47 icingaclient dnsmasq[1174]: nameserver 192.168.137.1 refused to do a recursive queryJan 28 17:13:03 icingaclient dhclient: DHCPREQUEST of 192.168.137.101 on wlan0 to 192.168.137.1 port 67 (xid=0xcd468e)Jan 28 17:13:03 icingaclient dhclient: DHCPACK of 192.168.137.101 from 192.168.137.1Jan 28 17:13:03 icingaclient dhclient: bound to 192.168.137.101 -- renewal in 291 seconds.Jan 28 17:13:03 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:  (wlan0): DHCPv4 state changed renew -> renewJan 28 17:13:03 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    address 192.168.137.101Jan 28 17:13:03 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    prefix 24 (255.255.255.0)Jan 28 17:13:03 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    gateway 192.168.137.1Jan 28 17:13:03 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    nameserver '192.168.137.1'Jan 28 17:13:03 icingaclient NetworkManager[865]:    domain name 'mshome.net'Jan 28 17:13:03 icingaclient dbus[779]: [system] Activating service name='org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher' (using servicehelper)Jan 28 17:13:03 icingaclient dbus[779]: [system] Successfully activated service 'org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher'

要加载所有最新的日志文件类型,请运行以下命令:

sudo lnav -a

与Lnav一起使用热键

您还可以使用各种热键选项导航lnav命令的输出。

首先,运行lnav命令:

sudo lnav

您应该看到以下输出:

Lnav日志查看器

现在,使用键盘上的i键将lnav输出切换到直方图视图,如下所示:

Lnav热键

接下来,使用p键查看日志解析器结果,如下所示:

Lnav P键

接下来,使用m键标记顶部日志文件,如下所示:

保持关键

结论

我希望你现在可以使用lnav轻松识别问题。 您也可以参考其官方网站了解更多详情。 如果您有任何问题,请随时发表评论。

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