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在RHEL / CentOS 7.x / 6.x / 5.x和Fedora 24-12上安装Cacti(网络监视)

仙人掌工具对IT业务的一个开源的基于Web的网络监控和系统监控图形解决方案。 仙人掌使得用户能够轮询定期服务来创建使用RRDtool的所得数据的曲线图。 通常,它被用来绘制指标,如网络带宽利用率 ,CPU负载运行的进程磁盘空间等的时间序列数据

Install Cacti in Linux

在RHEL / CentOS / Fedora中安装Cacti

在这种操作方法,我们将告诉你如何安装和设置完整的网络监控应用在RHEL 7.x版/ 6.x中/ 5.x中使用的Net-SNMP工具,称为仙人掌 ,CentOS 7.x版/ 6.x中/ 5.x24-12的Fedora系统中使用YUMDNF (Fedora的23起)包管理工具。

Cacti所需软件包

以下要求要在你的Linux操作系统,如RHEL / CentOS的 / Fedora的安装包的仙人掌。

  1. Apache :一个Web服务器,以显示PHP的RRDTool创建的网络图。
  2. MySQL的 :一个数据库服务器存储仙人掌信息。
  3. PHP:脚本模块创建使用RRDToo升图表。
  4. PHP-SNMP:PHP扩展的SNMP访问数据。
  5. NET-SNMP:A SNMP( 简单网络管理协议 )用于管理网络。
  6. RRDTool的 :数据库的工具来管理和检索像CPU负载网络带宽等的时间序列数据

在RHEL / CentOS / Fedora上安装Cacti所需软件包

首先,我们需要安装以下依赖包一个接一个使用YUM包管理工具。

安装Apache

# yum install httpd httpd-devel--------- On Fedora 22+ releases --------- # dnf install httpd httpd-devel
在CentOS 6和7上安装Apache

Apache Web服务器安装

安装MySQL

# yum install mysql mysql-server      [On RHEL/CentOS 6/5 and Fedora 12-18]
在CentOS 6中安装MySQL

MySQL安装

MariaDB的是MySQL数据库项目的社区开发叉,并提供了针对MySQL的替代品。 此前官方下RHEL / CentOS的6.x中/ 5.xFedora的支持数据库MySQL的。

近日, 红帽使得从MySQL到MariaDB的一个新的事务,因为MariaDB的是MySQL在RHEL / CentOS 7.x的默认实现和Fedora 19起..

# yum install mariadb-server -y		[On RHEL/CentOS 7.x and Fedora 19 onwards]# dnf install mariadb-server -y         [On Fedora 22+ onwards]
在CentOS 7中安装MariaDB

安装MariaDB数据库

安装PHP

# yum install php-mysql php-pear php-common php-gd php-devel php php-mbstring php-cli--------- On Fedora 22+ releases --------- # dnf install php-mysql php-pear php-common php-gd php-devel php php-mbstring php-cli
在CentOS 6和7中安装PHP

PHP安装模块

安装PHP-SNMP

# yum install php-snmp# dnf install php-snmp         [On Fedora 22+ onwards]
在CentOS中安装SNMP

SNMP安装

安装NET-SNMP

# yum install net-snmp-utils net-snmp-libs# dnf install net-snmp-utils net-snmp-libs         [On Fedora 22+ onwards]
安装SNMP Utils

安装SNMP Utils

安装RRDTool

# yum install rrdtool# dnf install rrdtool         [On Fedora 22+ onwards]
安装Rrdtool

安装Rrdtool

盯着Apache,MySQL和SNMP服务

一旦你安装了所有必需的软件对仙人掌的安装,让他们开始一个接一个使用下面的命令。

在RHEL / CentOS 6.x / 5.x和Fedora 18-12
[[email protected] ~]# service httpd start[[email protected] ~]# service mysqld start[[email protected] ~]# service snmpd start
在CentOS 6中启动服务

使用init启动服务

在RHEL / CentOS 7.x和Fedora 19以上
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl start httpd.service[[email protected] ~]# systemctl start mariadb.service[[email protected] ~]# systemctl start snmpd.service
在CentOS 7中启动服务

使用systemctl启动服务

配置系统启动链接

配置Apache,MySQLSNMP服务在引导时启动。

在RHEL / CentOS 6.x / 5.x和Fedora 18-12
[[email protected] ~]# /sbin/chkconfig --levels 345 httpd on[[email protected] ~]# /sbin/chkconfig --levels 345 mysqld on[[email protected] ~]# /sbin/chkconfig --levels 345 snmpd on
在CentOS中启用引导服务

在引导时启用服务使用chkconfig

在RHEL / CentOS 7.x和Fedora 19以上
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl enable httpd.service[[email protected] ~]# systemctl enable mariadb.service[[email protected] ~]# systemctl enable snmpd.service
在CentOS 7中启用引导服务

在启动时使用systemctl启用服务

在RHEL / CentOS / Fedora上安装Cacti

在这里,你需要安装并启用EPEL软件库 启用存储库后,键入以下命令以安装Cacti应用程序。

# yum install cacti# dnf install cacti         [On Fedora 22+ onwards]

样品输出:

Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacksepel/x86_64/metalink                                                                                                                                                  | 4.7 kB  00:00:00epel                                                                                                                                                                  | 4.4 kB  00:00:00(1/2): epel/x86_64/group_gz                                                                                                                                           | 250 kB  00:00:03(2/2): epel/x86_64/primary_db                                                                                                                                         | 4.0 MB  00:02:20(1/2): epel/x86_64/updateinfo                                                                                                                                         | 315 kB  00:00:09(2/2): epel/x86_64/pkgtags                                                                                                                                            | 1.4 MB  00:00:59Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile* base: centos.excellmedia.net* epel: ftp.cuhk.edu.hk* extras: centos.excellmedia.net* updates: centos.excellmedia.netResolving Dependencies--> Running transaction check---> Package cacti.noarch 0:0.8.8b-7.el7 will be installed--> Processing Dependency: rrdtool for package: cacti-0.8.8b-7.el7.noarch--> Processing Dependency: net-snmp-utils for package: cacti-0.8.8b-7.el7.noarch--> Running transaction check---> Package net-snmp-utils.x86_64 1:5.7.2-18.el7 will be installed---> Package rrdtool.x86_64 0:1.4.8-8.el7 will be installed--> Finished Dependency ResolutionDependencies Resolved=============================================================================================================================================================================================Package                                           Arch                                      Version                                           Repository                               Size=============================================================================================================================================================================================Installing:cacti                                             noarch                                    0.8.8b-7.el7                                      epel                                    2.1 MInstalling for dependencies:net-snmp-utils                                    x86_64                                    1:5.7.2-18.el7                                    base                                    195 krrdtool                                           x86_64                                    1.4.8-8.el7                                       base                                    368 kTransaction Summary=============================================================================================================================================================================================Install  1 Package (+2 Dependent packages)Total download size: 2.7 MInstalled size: 7.2 MIs this ok [y/d/N]: yDownloading packages:(1/3): net-snmp-utils-5.7.2-18.el7.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                         | 195 kB  00:00:04warning: /var/cache/yum/x86_64/7/epel/packages/cacti-0.8.8b-7.el7.noarch.rpm: Header V3 RSA/SHA256 Signature, key ID 352c64e5: NOKEY==============-        ]  56 kB/s | 2.4 MB  00:00:05 ETAPublic key for cacti-0.8.8b-7.el7.noarch.rpm is not installed(2/3): cacti-0.8.8b-7.el7.noarch.rpm                                                                                                                                  | 2.1 MB  00:00:53(3/3): rrdtool-1.4.8-8.el7.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                                 | 368 kB  00:02:47---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Total                                                                                                                                                         16 kB/s | 2.7 MB  00:02:47Retrieving key from file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-EPEL-7Importing GPG key 0x352C64E5:Userid     : "Fedora EPEL (7) "Fingerprint: 91e9 7d7c 4a5e 96f1 7f3e 888f 6a2f aea2 352c 64e5Package    : epel-release-7-5.noarch (installed)From       : /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-EPEL-7Is this ok [y/N]: yRunning transaction checkRunning transaction testTransaction test succeededRunning transactionWarning: RPMDB altered outside of yum.Installing : rrdtool-1.4.8-8.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                1/3Installing : 1:net-snmp-utils-5.7.2-18.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                      2/3Installing : cacti-0.8.8b-7.el7.noarch                                                                                                                                                 3/3/var/tmp/rpm-tmp.mR0t1v: line 1: fg: no job controlwarning: %post(cacti-0.8.8b-7.el7.noarch) scriptlet failed, exit status 1Non-fatal POSTIN scriptlet failure in rpm package cacti-0.8.8b-7.el7.noarchVerifying  : 1:net-snmp-utils-5.7.2-18.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                      1/3Verifying  : rrdtool-1.4.8-8.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                                2/3Verifying  : cacti-0.8.8b-7.el7.noarch                                                                                                                                                 3/3Installed:cacti.noarch 0:0.8.8b-7.el7Dependency Installed:net-snmp-utils.x86_64 1:5.7.2-18.el7                                                              rrdtool.x86_64 0:1.4.8-8.el7Complete!

为Cacti安装配置MySQL服务器

我们需要配置MySQL仙人掌 ,要做到这一点,我们需要为我们新安装的MySQL服务器设定的密码,然后我们将创建一个用户仙人掌 仙人掌数据库。 如果你的MySQL已经有密码保护,则不需要再次设定。

设置MySQL密码

要为MySQL服务器设置新密码,请使用以下命令。 :这是唯一的新的MySQL安装 )。

[[email protected] ~]# mysqladmin -u root password YOUR-PASSWORD-HERE

创建MySQL Cacti数据库

登录到MySQL服务器与新创建的密码,并创建用户仙人掌 仙人掌数据库,并为它设置密码。

在RHEL / CentOS 6.x / 5.x和Fedora 18-12
[[email protected] ~]# mysql -u root -pEnter password:Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.Your MySQL connection id is 3Server version: 5.1.73 Source distributionCopyright (c) 2000, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or itsaffiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respectiveowners.Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.mysql> create database cacti;Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)mysql> GRANT ALL ON cacti.* TO [email protected] IDENTIFIED BY 'howtoing';Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)mysql> FLUSH privileges;Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)mysql> quit;Bye
在RHEL / CentOS 7.x和Fedora 19以上
[[email protected] ~]# mysql -u root -pEnter password:Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.Your MariaDB connection id is 3Server version: 5.5.41-MariaDB MariaDB ServerCopyright (c) 2000, 2014, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.MariaDB [(none)]> create database cacti;Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)MariaDB [(none)]> GRANT ALL ON cacti.* TO [email protected] IDENTIFIED BY 'howtoing';Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)MariaDB [(none)]> FLUSH privileges;Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)MariaDB [(none)]> quit;Bye

将Cacti表安装到MySQL

找出使用RPM命令的数据库文件的路径,安装仙人掌表到新创建的数据库仙人掌 ,请使用以下命令。

# rpm -ql cacti | grep cacti.sql
样品输出:
/usr/share/doc/cacti-0.8.8b/cacti.sqlOR/usr/share/doc/cacti/cacti.sql

我们现在已经Cacti.sql文件的位置,键入以下命令来安装表,在这里你需要键入仙人掌用户密码

[[email protected] ~]# mysql -u cacti -p cacti 

Configure MySQL settings for Cacti

Open the file called /etc/cacti/db.php with any editor.

# vi /etc/cacti/db.php

Make the following changes and save the file. Make sure you set password correctly.

/* make sure these values reflect your actual database/host/user/password */$database_type = "mysql";$database_default = "cacti";$database_hostname = "localhost";$database_username = "cacti";$database_password = "your-password-here";$database_port = "3306";$database_ssl = false;

Configuring Firewall for Cacti

On RHEL/CentOS 6.x/5.x and Fedora 18-12

[[email protected] ~]# iptables -A INPUT -p udp -m state --state NEW --dport 80 -j ACCEPT[[email protected] ~]# iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m state --state NEW --dport 80 -j ACCEPT[[email protected] ~]# service iptables save

On RHEL/CentOS 7.x and Fedora 19 Onwards

[[email protected] ~]# firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=http[[email protected] ~]# firewall-cmd --reload

Configuring Apache Server for Cacti Installation

Open file called /etc/httpd/conf.d/cacti.conf with your choice of editor.

# vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/cacti.conf

You need to enabled access to Cacti application for your local network or per IP level. For example we've enabled access to our local LAN network 172.16.16.0/20. In your case, it would be different.

Alias /cacti    /usr/share/cacti <Directory /usr/share/cacti/>Order Deny,AllowDeny from allAllow from 172.16.16.0/20</Directory>

In latest version of Apache (ex: Apache 2.4), you may need to change according to the following settings.

Alias /cacti    /usr/share/cacti<Directory /usr/share/cacti/><IfModule mod_authz_core.c># httpd 2.4Require all granted</IfModule><IfModule !mod_authz_core.c># httpd 2.2Order deny,allowDeny from allAllow from all</IfModule></Directory>

Finally, restart the Apache service.

[[email protected] ~]# service httpd restart				[On RHEL/CentOS 6.x/5.x and Fedora 18-12][[email protected] ~]# systemctl restart httpd.service		[On RHEL/CentOS 7.x and Fedora 19 onwards]

Setting Cron for Cacti

Open file /etc/cron.d/cacti.

# vi /etc/cron.d/cacti

Uncomment the following line. The poller.php script runs every 5mins and collects data of known host which is used by Cacti application to display graphs.

#*/5 * * * *    cacti   /usr/bin/php /usr/share/cacti/poller.php > /dev/null 2>&1

Running Cacti Installer Setup

Finally, Cacti is ready, just go to http://YOUR-IP-HERE/cacti/ & follow the installer instruction through the following screens. Click Next button.

Cacti Installer Screen

Cacti Setup Screen

Please choose installation Type as "New Install".

Cacti New Install Setup

Select Cacti New Install

Make sure all the following values are correct before continuing. Click Finish button.

Cacti Installation

Cacti Installation Directories

Cacti Login Screen, enter username as admin and password as admin.

Cacti Login Screen

Cacti Login Screen

Once you've entered username and password, it will ask you to enter a new password for cacti.

Set Cacti Password

Cacti Force Password Screen

Cacti Console Screen.

Cacti Console

Cacti Console Screen

How to Create New Graphs

To create graphs, Click on New Graphs --> Select Host --> Select SNMP - Interface Statistics and Select a graph type In/Out Bits. Click on Create button. Please refer screen below.

Create Graphs in Cacti

How to Create Graphs in Cacti

Cacti Monitoring Graphs

Cacti Monitoring Graphs

For more information and usage please visit the Cacti Page.

为Cacti配置MySQL设置

打开名为/etc/cacti/db.php使用任何编辑的文件。

# vi /etc/cacti/db.php

进行以下更改并保存文件。 确保正确设置密码。

/* make sure these values reflect your actual database/host/user/password */$database_type = "mysql";$database_default = "cacti";$database_hostname = "localhost";$database_username = "cacti";$database_password = "your-password-here";$database_port = "3306";$database_ssl = false;

为Cacti配置防火墙

在RHEL / CentOS 6.x / 5.x和Fedora 18-12
[[email protected] ~]# iptables -A INPUT -p udp -m state --state NEW --dport 80 -j ACCEPT[[email protected] ~]# iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m state --state NEW --dport 80 -j ACCEPT[[email protected] ~]# service iptables save
在RHEL / CentOS 7.x和Fedora 19以上
[[email protected] ~]# firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=http[[email protected] ~]# firewall-cmd --reload

配置Apache Server以进行Cacti安装

打开文件名为/etc/httpd/conf.d/cacti.conf与您选择的编辑器。

# vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/cacti.conf

您需要启用访问应用程序仙人掌为你的本地网络或每个IP的水平。 例如,我们启用了接入本地局域网172.16.16.0/20。 在你的情况下,它会不同。

Alias /cacti    /usr/share/cacti <Directory /usr/share/cacti/>Order Deny,AllowDeny from allAllow from 172.16.16.0/20</Directory>

在Apache中(例如: Apache2.4)的最新版本,您可能需要按照下面的设置更改。

Alias /cacti    /usr/share/cacti<Directory /usr/share/cacti/><IfModule mod_authz_core.c># httpd 2.4Require all granted</IfModule><IfModule !mod_authz_core.c># httpd 2.2Order deny,allowDeny from allAllow from all</IfModule></Directory>

最后,重新启动Apache服务。

[[email protected] ~]# service httpd restart				[On RHEL/CentOS 6.x/5.x and Fedora 18-12][[email protected] ~]# systemctl restart httpd.service		[On RHEL/CentOS 7.x and Fedora 19 onwards]

为Cacti设置Cron

打开文件/etc/cron.d/cacti。

# vi /etc/cron.d/cacti

取消注释以下行。 poller.php脚本运行,每5分钟 ,并收集所使用的仙人掌应用程序来显示图形的已知主机的数据。

#*/5 * * * *    cacti   /usr/bin/php /usr/share/cacti/poller.php > /dev/null 2>&1

运行Cacti安装程序设置

最后,仙人掌俱备,只访问http://你的-IP-HERE /仙人掌/&按照安装指令通过下面的屏幕。 单击Next按钮。

Cacti Installer Screen

仙人掌设置屏幕

请选择安装类型“ 新安装 ”。

Cacti New Install Setup

选择Cacti新安装

在继续之前,请确保所有以下值是正确的。 单击Finish按钮。

Cacti Installation

Cacti安装目录

Cacti登录屏幕,输入用户名为admin,密码为admin。

Cacti Login Screen

仙人掌登录屏幕

输入用户名和密码后,将要求您输入cacti的新密码。

Set Cacti Password

Cacti Force密码屏幕

仙人掌控制台屏幕。

Cacti Console

仙人掌控制台屏幕

如何创建新图表

要创建图表,请点击新图表 – > 选择主机 – > 选择SNMP接口统计信息 ,并选择一个图表类型输入/输出位 点击创建按钮。 请参考下面的屏幕。

Create Graphs in Cacti

如何在Cacti中创建图形

仙人掌监测图

仙人掌监测图

欲了解更多信息和用法,请访问仙人掌页

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